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East Germany became a communist country under the control of the Soviet Union.At the same time West Germany was a democratic country and allied with Britain, France, and the United States.
In the immediate aftermath of the collapse of the Berlin Wall, the East German Communist Party began negotiations with representatives from the SDP, Democracy Now, and other citizen action groups (most of which had previously been part of New Forum) under the auspices of a Central Round Table that brought the main opposition groups together with Party representatives.
On March 18, 1990, the first free election was held in the GDR and transferred power to a new governing coalition comprised of Christian Democrats (CDU) and Social Democrats (SPD) led by Prime Minister Lothar de Maizière, a member of the conservative Christian Democratic Union.
Within weeks, this organization became the focus for opposition to the regime and its members helped to organize and lead street protests that grew increasingly large. ” even as they marched and attended parades extolling the GDR.
When Gorbachev visited Berlin during the 40th-anniversary celebration of the establishment of the German Democratic Republic, he uttered these famous words: “life punishes those who come too late,” an clear allusion to Honecker’s unwillingness to reform East Germany along the lines that Gorbachev was pursuing in the Soviet Union. That evening a small group of dissidents gathered in a parsonage in the town of Schwante outside of Berlin and founded the first independent political party in East Germany–the Social Democratic Party in the GDR (SDP).
The initial plan was that the country would eventually be reunited, but this didn't happen for a long time.
The City of Berlin Berlin was the capital of Germany.
To this end, on the evening of October 9, local authorities prepared for mass arrests and even the use of deadly force – 3,000 riot police, 500 additional militia members, and 3,000 regular army soldiers were issued live ammunition and placed on alert at the outskirts of town.
Faced with strong international pressure for moderation, the German authorities instead allowed the demonstration to proceed without incident.
Other East Germans began camping on the grounds of West German embassies across Eastern Europe, requesting passports.
International law viewed the embassy grounds as sovereign territory of the Federal Republic (West Germany) and according to West German law, East Germans who entered West Germany had an immediate right to West German citizenship.