Causes And Effects Of Teenage Depression Essay

Causes And Effects Of Teenage Depression Essay-55
Using this approach, we found that both cognitive (e.g., self-criticism — Auerbach, Ho, & Kim, 2014) and interpersonal (e.g., diminished social support — Auerbach, Bigda-Peyton, Eberhart, Webb, & Ho, 2011) vulnerability factors led to interpersonal stressors, contributing to higher levels of depressive symptoms over time. Given the potentially synergistic relationship between diathesis-stress and stress generation models, we next sought to develop an integrated cognitive-interpersonal model of depression with the understanding that stress generation models contribute to our understanding of how stressors arise whereas diathesis-stress models explain why depressive symptoms unfold. Auerbach is an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School. Auerbach is the recipient of several awards, including the David Shakow Early Career Award and the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Early Career Award.

Using this approach, we found that both cognitive (e.g., self-criticism — Auerbach, Ho, & Kim, 2014) and interpersonal (e.g., diminished social support — Auerbach, Bigda-Peyton, Eberhart, Webb, & Ho, 2011) vulnerability factors led to interpersonal stressors, contributing to higher levels of depressive symptoms over time. Given the potentially synergistic relationship between diathesis-stress and stress generation models, we next sought to develop an integrated cognitive-interpersonal model of depression with the understanding that stress generation models contribute to our understanding of how stressors arise whereas diathesis-stress models explain why depressive symptoms unfold. Auerbach is an assistant professor at Harvard Medical School. Auerbach is the recipient of several awards, including the David Shakow Early Career Award and the Society for Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology Early Career Award.

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Reprinted with permission from Journal of Abnormal Psychology.

Results of independent t-tests contrasting current density for healthy versus depressed adolescents following negative words in the Self-Referential Encoding Task (Blue: Healthy Control (HC) (3), 401-417.

As hypothesized, healthy youth had greater P1 positivity for positive versus negative words, while depressed adolescents exhibited greater P1 amplitudes following negative words than positive words.

Further, depressed adolescents demonstrated a greater LPP for negative words as opposed to positive words, indicating sustained activity for encoding negative versus positive self-referential information.

Conversely, the healthy group showed greater sustained positivity for positive as opposed to negative words.

Source localization with low magnetic resonance tomography (LORETA) indicated that these group differences may reflect dysfunction in frontolimbic cortical regions (i.e., under-recruitment of the inferior frontal gyrus and medial temporal gyrus) among depressed adolescents (see Figure 1; Auerbach, Stanton, Proudfit, & Pizzagalli, 2015). LORETA Contrasts for Healthy versus Depressed Adolescents Following Negative Words Note. Self-criticism, dependency, and stress reactivity: an experience sampling approach to testing Blatt and Zuroff's (1992) theory of personality predispositions to depression in high-risk youth.

Therefore, our work has continued to test integrated models incorporating behavioral, neurobiological and genetic indicators to advance understanding of key contributors to depression onset, depression recurrence and response to depression treatment.

As outlined in our earlier work, major depressive disorder (MDD) is characterized by depressogenic biases (Auerbach, Ho, et al., 2014), and recent research has explored the behaviors and neural substrates underlying these biases (Auerbach, Webb, Gardiner, & Pechtel, 2013; Shestyuk & Deldin, 2010).

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