Measurement of children’s activities, and especially those that would encompass child labor, include many characteristics other than just the activities that children perform.It is also necessary to collect information on characteristics of other members of the household, especially the parents, and characteristics of the community in which the child lives.Tags: General Research Paper OutlineContents Of A Thesis AbstractWriting A Comparison Essay Lesson PlanHelp Me With My CourseworkPaid Homework HelpStarting A Wedding Planning Business
The Inter-Generational Persistence of Child Labor Social Protection Discussion Paper No. Emerson and André Portela Souza Emerson and Souza use the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostragem a Domicilio (PNAD) data for Brazil. First, does the child labor status of parents impact the child labor incidence of their children? Second, is this link only a function of permanent family income or is there a direct link between the child labor status of the parents and their children? This complements their previous research (Emerson and Souza 2002) in which they went on to ask if a person works as a child, would this increase the probability of his or her child working by more than that can be explained by the fact that the person will be poor as an adult (by virtue of having been a child worker) and therefore compelled to send the child to work? Hence, the presence of social factors can cause the perpetuation of child labor through non-income channels.
It is, for instance, possible that having been a child laborer oneself affects one’s social norms and attitude to child labor (Basu 1999, Lopez-Calva 2002) such that one is more prone to send ones' own child to work.
The adverse impact of child labor on test performance is larger when children work regularly rather than occasionally.
Even modest levels of child labor at early ages cause adverse consequences for the development of cognitive abilities.
The study looks specifically at the labor market outcomes of young people and key factors influencing these outcomes, including early labor market entry and human capital accumulation.
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It also examines the process of labor market entry, and, for those who attended school, the duration of the transition from school to work. 0517; Publication Date: 5/05by Diane Steele Studies that have been done on the relationships between poverty, vulnerability, risks and children’s activities have shown that child work may not always be a consequence of poverty, and that some aspects of vulnerability may be more important in determining whether children work or not than others.
Income transfer policies should target households broadly rather than on current child labor market status.
It may be as important to shore up income in poor households whose children are currently enrolled as to direct income transfers to households in which children currently are out of school.
In order to analyze the relationships between vulnerability, risk and children’s activities both quantitative and qualitative information is needed.
Information on vulnerability cannot be measured directly.