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In comparing the two versions of the technology standards, it is clear that the shift has been made from simply teaching students how to operate technology to using technology to encourage problem-solving, innovation, and collaboration.But how do we develop students who are critical and creative thinkers, able to Figure 1.To reach these goals, we began with an extensive review of over 200 research articles and books written on critical thinking and creativity.
Whereas creativity is often defined as the generation of numerous original ideas, we recognize that creative thought involves the selection of appropriate ideas to move forward.
Further, critical thinking is often thought of as the analysis, synthesis, and evaluation of ideas; however, critical thinking also involves the generation of ideas (Marzano , 1988).
With public educators as our focus, we felt strongly that we needed to represent each of these components as teachable skills.
Thus, we developed a list of supporting skills and objectives that can be incorporated into any lesson plan or curriculum.
As the thinker works to generate and refine knowledge, it is vital that he or she remains in control of both behavior and commitment to a task.
The component of the critical and creative thinking process ensures that the thinker remains active in the thinking and learning process, while monitoring progress toward identified goals.
A critical component that encompasses all other processes is the exhibition of appropriate Sometimes referred to as learner characteristics, the essential attitudes and dispositions of motivation, flexibility, and confidence have been shown to be necessary for the development of and continuous involvement in critical and creative thinking (Black, 2005; Marzano, 1993; Raths, Wassermann, Jonas, & Rothstein, 1986).
Each of the essential components as well as the accompanying instructional guidelines, is elaborated on below.
As Figure 1 illustrates, the relationship between these processes is in no way linear.
The continuous, reciprocal relationship between shows that there is no specific beginning or end to the thinking process.