Destruction Forests Essay

Destruction Forests Essay-46
In response to a push to use bed nets to prevent nighttime bites in malaria-prone regions of the world, for example, researchers are seeing a change in the time of day mosquitoes bite — many now target their human quarry in the hours before bed.A study by Vittor and others found that one malaria-carrying mosquito species, in 2006.

In response to a push to use bed nets to prevent nighttime bites in malaria-prone regions of the world, for example, researchers are seeing a change in the time of day mosquitoes bite — many now target their human quarry in the hours before bed.A study by Vittor and others found that one malaria-carrying mosquito species, in 2006.

Forests contain numerous pathogens that have been passed back and forth between mosquitoes and mammals for ages. A flood of sunlight pouring onto the once-shady forest floor, for example, increases water temperatures, which can aid mosquito breeding, explained Amy Vittor, an assistant professor of medicine at the University of Florida.

Because they evolved together, these viruses often cause few or no symptoms in their hosts, providing “a protective effect from a homegrown infection,” says Richard Pollack of the T. She is an expert in the ecology of deforestation and malaria, which is where this dynamic is best understood.

Bats, primates, and even snails can carry disease, and transmission dynamics change for all of these species following forest clearing, often creating a much greater threat to people.

Throughout human history pathogens have emerged from forests.

Some 60 percent of the diseases that affect people spend part of their life cycle in wild and domestic animals.

The research work is urgent — land development is rapidly taking place across regions with high biodiversity, and the greater the number of species, the greater the number of diseases, scientists say.In Borneo, an island shared by Indonesia and Malaysia, some of the world’s oldest tropical forests are being cut down and replaced with oil palm plantations at a breakneck pace.Wiping forests high in biodiversity off the land for monoculture plantations causes numerous environmental problems, from the destruction of wildlife habitat to the rapid release of stored carbon, which contributes to global warming.A growing body of scientific evidence shows that the felling of tropical forests creates optimal conditions for the spread of mosquito-borne scourges, including malaria and dengue.Primates and other animals are also spreading disease from cleared forests to people.The ecology of the viruses in deforested areas is different.As forests are cut down, numerous new boundaries, or edges, are created between deforested areas and forest.“The species that survive and become dominant, for reasons that are not well understood, almost always transmit malaria better than the species that had been most abundant in the intact forests,” write Eric Chivian and Aaron Bernstein, public health experts at Harvard Medical School, in their book .“This has been observed essentially everywhere malaria occurs.” Mosquitoes can adapt fairly quickly to environmental change.The most recent example came to light this month in the , with researchers documenting a steep rise in human malaria cases in a region of Malaysian Borneo undergoing rapid deforestation.This form of the disease was once found mainly in primates called macaques, and scientists from the London School of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene wondered why there was a sudden spike in human cases.

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