Developmental Psychology Extended Essay

Developmental Psychology Extended Essay-82
According to Papalia, Olds, and Feldman (2007), theories that explain human development are characterized by models of how individuals undergo transformation (and stay unchanged) over time.Sigmund Freud is considered the pioneer of the psychoanalytic school of thought of human development.

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He identified the psychic energy which operates the different parts of an organism.

This energy is biological based and always available in same form.

The source of this energy, according to Freud, is instinctual in nature which implies that it is not learnt.

The most powerful of the instincts are those dealing with creation and sustenance of life, the sexual instinct. There are other instincts that were identified but the sexual instinct becomes a main life instinct which is necessary for the survival of species (Rayner, Joyce & Clulow, 2005).

Fixation refers to the arrested development at one of the psychosexual stages because of under or over-gratification of a need (Zerucha, 2003).

The following are the five stages of Freud’s model of human development.Sigmund also identified another class of instincts called Thanatos which represented death and aggression.Libido is the special form of energy used by the Eros.Moreover, the interactions of cognitive, physical and emotional development on the overall development of the child are discussed.The paper also provides explanations of the importance of understanding the normal child and adolescent development as far as assisting each child to reach their full potential is concerned.Psychologists have made tremendous progress in their attempts to explain how development occurs among human beings.Over a long period of time, developmental psychologists have been engaged in controversies in their understanding of development as either continuous or stage oriented (Kail & Cavanaugh, 2008).Freud believed that human behavior occurs unconsciously.This means that the development of human behaviour is out of awareness and the unconscious part of the brain stores up all experiences, memories and repressed material and motivations.There are several theories that have been advanced in support of the stage oriented development.The purpose of this paper is to compare and contrast three major developmental theories as advanced by Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget.


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