Durkheim viewed social facts being outside of the individual but yet powerful in shaping the individual. Material social facts visible such as buildings, while nonmaterial social facts difficult to see but as a society we know they exist.
The nonmaterial social facts are customs, cultures and norms for any given society (Ritzer, p 188).
His research involved analyzing brain scans of serial killers.
He found that areas of the frontal and temporal lobes associated with empathy, morality, and self-control are “shut off” in serial killers.
Moreover, the word is hardly ever used in the scientific texts of the members of his school.
His faithful disciple and nephew Marcel Mauss in his two well-known texts of 19, “Social Cohesion in Polysegmentary Societies” (Mauss 1969a) and “Fragment of a Plan of General Descriptive Sociology” (Mauss 1969b), prefers to speak of “social cohesion” and not of “solidarity,” only briefly mentioning the two Durkheimian types of the latter in the second of these texts.
In addition, Anomie defined as a breakdown of values, norms and values are convoluted, or not present at all (Durkheim’s Anomie).
Durkheim described Anomie as a condition where the norms of society no longer influence the individual.
Individuals do not identify their place within society, and changes such as economic or personal crisis leads them to unhappiness, depression, conflict within society and perhaps deviance (Durkheim’s Anomie).
It is obvious and generally accepted that, in one form or another, social solidarity was always the focus of Durkheim’s attention.