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The two models presented are therefore equally important, yet they are not capable to capture the entire essence of the communication process independently.This is in part due to the difficulty in capturing both the linear process of communication and all the sub elements of each of those steps.For instance, social media platforms allow a more quick and effective communication, but there are particularities for each of these communication platforms which need to be taken into account, which may pose difficulties for individuals and organisations.
Figure 3 One-way communication Figure 4 Two-way communication The two distinct approaches to communication processes have their relevance in distinct situations.
The linear one-way communication was habitually utilised at the onset of modern mass-communication through print, radio or TV, when feedback was not easily obtainable from the receiver and organisations were relying on the persuasiveness of the message.
Although omnipresent through its nature, communication is difficult to define, as it is such a natural phenomenon for all living creatures, humans in particular.
It can be described as the verbal or non-verbal interaction between two or more individuals, with the purpose of exchanging information.
This is defined and detailed in Berlo’s (1960) theory, which puts great emphasis on the interaction between the source and receiver in the presence of a message and facilitated by the chosen channel.
However, this fails to depict the two crucial elements which are present in Shannon - Weaver’s model, namely noise and feedback.Communication is also used by individuals and organisations to create and share meaning.An organisation for instance cannot exist without the effective use of communication amongst its members and the majority of businesses also depends on effective communication with their clients.At the same time, however, cultural differences can also be seen as noise, in Shannon & Weaver’s (1949) model and the negative impact of these distinctions can be minimised through effective feedback.Figure 2 Berlo's (1960) Communication Model Barnlund (1962) expands on the two models presented and additional knowledge in the field through his proposition of a transactional model, which expands on the idea of feedback.The interferences which can occur in the communication can be classified in four main categories: For business organisations, for instance, it is important to understand the process of communication, in order to understand the most important elements which can be researched and utilised in designing and delivering their message.In relational communication it is also important to understand various elements which influence the delivery of the message to the interlocutor (receiver), including their culture, knowledge, etc.Apart from individual’s need for communication, the scholarly knowledge also indicates that politicians, organisations and other humans need communication in order to persuade certain targeted groups of individuals to act or think in a certain manner.For businesses it is important to design and deliver a persuasive advertising message in the market which ultimately leads the end receiver to act upon this message and purchase a product or service sold to them.To exemplify with a very relevant and common instance in modern times, a Facebook user will be browsing their newsfeeds, looking for relevant information, whilst also being targeted by various companies through paid advertising.It is crucial for businesses to target their adverts in their most relevant manner, in order to avoid being perceived as noise and also because they are interfering in the interpretation of other messages.