After another decade of low growth rate, the term became the Lost 20 Years.Nonetheless, GDP per capita growth from 2001 to 2010 has still managed to outpace Europe and the United States.
Security concerns include North Korea’s nuclear and missile threats and China’s claims of sovereignty in the East and South China Seas. It enforces contracts and provides secure protection of real and intellectual property.
Levels of corruption are low, but close relationships among companies, politicians, and government agencies foster an inwardly cooperative business climate conducive to corruption.
The public wants deeper reforms to remedy Japan’s endemic economic problems but fears the upheaval that such measures would cause.
The government’s “Abenomics” policy has made a dent in deflation, but demographic decline caused by a low birth rate and an aging, shrinking population poses a major long-term economic challenge.
By 1990, income per capita in Japan equalled or surpassed that in most countries in the West.
During the second half of the 1980s, rising stock and real estate prices created an economic bubble.Accounting for these fluctuations through use of the Atlas method, Japan is estimated to have a GDP per capita of around ,490.The Japanese economy is forecast by the Quarterly Tankan survey of business sentiment conducted by the Bank of Japan.The financial sector is competitive, but state involvement persists.Due to a volatile currency exchange rate, Japan's GDP as measured in dollars fluctuates sharply.A longtime global economic power and Western ally, Japan has had a history of revolving-door leadership in recent years.Prime Minister Shinzo Abe, in office since 2012 and elected to a historic third term in October 2017, has provided much-needed political stability but has been hampered by political scandals.The economic bubble came to an abrupt end as the Tokyo Stock Exchange crashed in 1990–92 and real estate prices peaked in 1991.Growth in Japan throughout the 1990s at 1.5% was slower than global growth, giving rise to the term Lost Decade.The traditional practice of amakudari (granting retired government officials top positions within Japanese companies) is common in several sectors. The top corporate rate is 23.9 percent, which local taxes and an enterprise tax can increase significantly.The overall tax burden equals 30.7 percent of total domestic income.