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Peter's basilica, one of the most sacred buildings in Christianity. Artists flocked to Rome during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries to study the ruins and contribute to the new structures of Rome, striving to connect the new with the style of the ancient.
Julius II continued the consolidation of power in the Papal States, encouraged the devotion to learning and writing in Rome begun by Pope Nicholas V, and, foremost, continued the process of rebuilding Rome physically.
The most prominent project among many was the rebuilding of St. Ancient structures were demolished to make room and building materials for the new buildings of the city.
Despite prophesies of future greatness , Augustus was a sickly child in a family with few connections. His prospects were bleak: Rome was dangerous, engulfed by civil war between power-hungry factions. This was a fantastic opportunity for a young man from nowhere.
One of these was led by his great-uncle, Julius Caesar. In 46 BC, Caesar won the civil war and was named dictator of Rome. Almost at once, however, Caesar was dead – murdered by his own advisors.
Alexander VI was himself known as a corrupt pope bent on his family's political and material success, to an even greater extent than Sixtus IV had been.
It was no secret that Alexander VI's oldest son Cesare, was a murderer, and had killed many of his political opponents.Under Leo X, the ruins of Rome began to be more effectively preserved, and metaphorically, so did the morality of the Papacy.When he died in 1521, Rome's Golden Age effectively ended, and the Renaissance as a whole began to fade.Many saw the rise of Rodrigo Borgia to the papal throne as a sign of impending demise for the Catholic Church.However, both Italy and the Catholic Church survived Alexander VI's reign, and perhaps even learned some valuable lessons, for Julius II and Pope Leo X reversed the slide of the Papacy and ushered in the Golden Age of Rome, during which both the city and its rulers were admired and respected, reversing the trend under which the Papacy had slipped into moral degradation while the physical city itself rose to new heights.When he became pope, myth and legend quickly rose up around his family.Alexander VI had four acknowledged children, three males and one female.Rodrigo Borgia, later Alexander VI, has assumed the role of the archetypical Renaissance pope.Historians cite his exploits as pontiff as representative of the nepotism and corruption that plagued the Papacy throughout the Renaissance period.Rome received its final push to renaissance glory from Pope Leo X, second son of Lorenzo de Medici.He came to the papal throne in 1513, following Julius II.